A Above the fold - The content on a Web page that you can see without having to scroll down. The content that you see when you access a web page. ADN (Advanced Digital Network) - Usually refers to 56kbps leased line ADSL - (Asymmetric digital subscriber line) ADSL is currently the most used form of DSL technology. Most homes and small businesses currently using DSL technology use ADSL. It allows a greater amount of data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. Address - An address is a unique identifier assigned to a web page. The address is usually referred to as the URL (Uniformed Resource Locator). Aiken, Howard (1900-73) - American Mathematician and computer pioneeer. He realised the importance of Babbage's analytical engine and suggested the automatic sequence controlled calculator (ascc) which, built in the mid 1940s, was the first automatic computer. Aliasing and Anti-aliasing - Aliasing is a Web design term which we use to describe the unwanted distortion of visual elements on a computer screen. These take many forms, such as the appearance of jagged or stair-stepped edges along what is supposed to be a smooth, curvy surface (like an O or S) Anti-aliasing is a software technique used in imaging programes (such as Photoshop) to make these curved edges or diagonal lines look smooth and continuous. Anonymous FTP - Users can access a remote server using FTP without actually having an account on that server. The user's E-mail address is usually given as a password and the user name 'anonymous' is assigned to the user by systems supporting this service. Apache Server - This is a public-domain Web server and was developed by a loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version of Apache was developed in 1995. Because it was developed from existing code plus various patches, it was reffered to as "a patchy server" - hence the name Apache Server. As a result of its advanced features, excellent performance, and free availablity, Apache is now the world's most popular Web server. It has been said that it is used to host more than 50% of all Web sites in the world. Core development of the Apache Web server is now performed by a about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group. Applet - This is a multimedia application written or embedded in the Java language such as animation or sound, viewable only in a Java-enabled browser such as Netscape 2.0 or HotJava. ARJ - Allows the user to store files in a compressed format in an archive file. Named after the creator, American programmer Robert Jung. Archie - This is is a database of anonymous ftp sites and their contents, the data base "Archie" keeps a track of the contents of these sites, and allows its users to search for files on those sites. Archive - Usually compressed, archives are often large files containing several smaller files. Commonly used archive file formats are ZIP, TAR, ARJ, LZH, UC2. Archive site - Contains many different kinds of files which are archived and available for users to download either by FTP or E-mail. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - This is the defacto world-wide standard for the code numbers used by computers to represent all the upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111. AVI (Audio/Video Interleaved) - Common format (.avi) this is for video files which are on the internet. Unlike Quicktime, AVI is usually Windows/DOS based. AVS (Address Verification System) - This is a method of verification used by companies to match the first line of an address and the postcode to that of the card Holder that is making the purchase from your site. Avatar - This is a digital "actor" or icon that represents who you are in chat rooms etc. The avatar can be whatever you want, including a cartoon, an animal, or any graphical element and it helps other users to identify you easily. B Bandwidth - In the context of Telecoms it describes the speed of a connection in terms of how much information can be sent through a connection, usually measured in bps (bits-per-second) In the context of Web hosting, it describes the ammout of data sent over a longer period of time, otherwise known as 'Traffic'. For example a web hosting company may allow 20Gb of data per month, before charging for excess. Batch Process - In the context of e-commerce, Batch Processing is where the merchant (you) collects the card information for processing and then passes this information to the payment provider, for processing. However, this is not always real-time authorisation. Baud - The baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud is the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value - for example a 1200 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 300 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 300= 1200 bits per second). BBS (Bulletin Board System) - A computer system run by local users which makes files available for downloading and setting up electronic discussion forums. Binary - This is Information which consists entirely of ones and zeros. It is also commonly used to refer to files that are not just text files, e.g. images. Bit (Binary Digit) - A bit is a single digit number in base-2, in other words, it is either a 1 or a zero. The smallest unit of computerized data. Bandwidth is usually measured in bps (bits-per-second.) Body - In E-mail terms, the part of the message containing the most textual content, usually sandwiched between the He Compress The act of discarding redundant or semi-redundant information from a file, thereby making it smaller. Bookmark - In general Virtual bookmarks work pretty much the same as the real ones. They record a URL or web page which then enables you to refer back to it at a later date. Bounced Message - An Undeliverable email message which is returned to the sender with an error notification. bps (Bits Per Second) - speed at which data transfer is measured. Browser Endorsement - This is a statement on a website saying 'this site is optimized' for a particular web browser, eg Internet Explorer version 6. This is often accompanied by a recommendation of screen resolution (eg 1024x784) and Hardware (eg a PC). Byte - A set of Bits that represent a single character. There are usually 8 Bits in a Byte, sometimes more, depending on how the measurement is made. C Cache - Area of memory on your computer where frequently accessed data is stored for fast access. All browsers have a cache in which they store data from all current visited websites. Most give you a choice about the amount of memory they use for this function. CGI (Common Gateway Interface) - A set of rules that help describe how a Web Server communicates with another piece of software on the same computer. Any piece of software can be a CGI program if it handles input and output according to the CGI standard cgi-bin - This is the most common name of a directory on a web server in which CGI programs are kept. Compress - The act of discarding redundant or semi-redundant information from a file, thereby making it smaller. Cookie - A Cookie is a piece of software which records information about you onto your computer. It holds this information until such time that the server requests it. For example, if you are browsing around a virtual shop, each time you place an item in your basket the information is stored by the cookie until you decide to buy and the server requests the purchase information. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) - HTML does not define exactly how the page will be laid out on the viewer's screen hence the recent development of CSS. Style sheets are defined separately from the text and graphics of the page and allow the designer to specify an exact placing of each content element. Available in the latest browsers. F FAQ - (Frequently Asked Question) Lists of Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) covering all manner of topics can be found across the World Wide Web, allowing the user to search for a query that somebody has already found the answer to. FDDI - (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for transmitting data through optical fibre cables at a rate of around 100 million bps. Filename extension - Commonly a three or four-letter extension on the end of a file name designating the file type. There are hundreds in existence, and new ones frequently being invented. Examples are: .txt (text file), .gif (Graphics Interchange Format). Finger - A Unix program which displays information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system. Firewall - Secures a company or organisation's internal network from unauthorised external access (most commonly in the form of Internet hackers). Flame - An insulting or derogatory message usually sent via E-mail as punishment for breach of netiquette. There have been instances of 'Flame Wars', when other people join in the heated exchanges. In either case, not recommended. Forms - Certain Browsers support electronic fill-in forms. A form on a Web Page can be filled in by users all over the world, and the information sent electronically to the relevant domain site. Freeware - (File Transfer Protocol) one of the main ways files are transferred across the Internet. An FTP Site is that which is provided by a company or organisation as a depository for all kinds of files which users may download.