Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. 1534 - Jacques Cartier begins his voyage, in which he will discover Canada and Labrador. 1653 - Oliver Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament. 1657 - Admiral Robert Blake destroys a Spanish silver fleet under heavy fire at Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 1657 - Freedom of religion is granted to the Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City). 1689 - The former King James II of England, now deposed, lays siege to Derry. 1775 - American Revolutionary War: the siege of Boston begins, which followed the first battles at Lexington and Concord. 1792 - France declares war on Austria, the beginning of French Revolutionary Wars. 1810 - The Governors of Caracas declares the national sovereignty from Spain. 1828 - René Caillié is first non-Muslim to enter in Timbouctou. 1836 - U.S. Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory. 1861 - American Civil War: Robert E. Lee resigns his commission in the United States Army in order to command the forces of the state of Virginia. 1862 - The first pasteurization test completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard. 1871 - Civil Rights Act of 1871 1884 - Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical, Humanum Genus. 1902 - Pierre and Marie Curie refine radium chloride. 1908 - Opening day of competition of the New South Wales Rugby League. 1912 - Opening day for baseball stadiums Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan, and Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts. 1914 - Forty-five men, women, and children die in the Ludlow Massacre during a bitter Colorado coal-miner's strike. 1918 - Manfred von Richthofen, aka The Red Baron, shoots down his 79th and 80th victims marking his final victories before his death the following day. 1926 - Western Electric and Warner Bros. announce Vitaphone, a process to add sound to film. 1945 - World War II: US troops capture Leipzig, Germany, only to later cede the city to the Soviet Union. 1945 - World War II: U.S. B-29 bombers destroy the Musashi Aircraft plants, halting production of the Nakajima Ki-84 fighter planes. 1945 - Mayor of Leipzig, Germany, killed himself along with his wife and daughter 1945 - Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler makes his last trip to the surface to award Iron Crosses to boy soldiers of the Hitler Youth. 1961 - Failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of US troops against Cuba. 1962 - First production of Bentlage brand cigars, Habana, Cuba. 1964 - BBC Two launches with the power cut because of the fire at Battersea Power Station. 1967 - A Globe Air Bristol Britannia turboprop crashes at Nicosia, Cyprus, killing 126. 1968 - A South African Airways Boeing 707 crashes during takeoff at Windhoek, South-West Africa, killing 122. 1968 - English politician Enoch Powell makes his controversial Rivers of Blood speech. 1972 - Apollo 16 lands on the Moon. 1978 - Korean Air Flight 902 shot down by Soviets. 1980 - Climax of Berber Spring in Algeria as hundreds of Berber political activists are arrested. 1985 - ATF raid on The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord compound in northern Arkansas. 1986 - Pianist Vladimir Horowitz performed in his native Russia for the first time in 61 years. 1986 - Professional basketball player Michael Jordan sets all-time record for points in an NBA playoff game with 63 against the Boston Celtics. 1998 - TAME Boeing 727-200 chartered by Air France crashes into Cerro El Cable mountain after takeoff from Bogotá, Colombia, killing 53. 1998 - German terrorist group Red Army Faction announces their dissolution after 28 years. 1999 - Columbine High School massacre: Two gunmen kill 13 people and injure 24 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School located in Jefferson County, Colorado. 2004 - In Iraq, 12 mortars are fired on Abu Ghraib Prison by insurgents, killing 22 detainees and wounding 92. 2007 - Johnson Space Center Shooting: A man with a handgun barricades himself in NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before killing a male hostage and himself. Births 1918 - Edward L. Beach, Jr., American naval officer, author (d. 2002) 1918 - Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007) 1919 - Richard Hillary, Australian Spitfire pilot and author (d. 1943) 1920 - John Paul Stevens, U.S. Supreme Court Justice 1920 - Ronald Speirs, WWII Veteran (d. 2007) 1921 - Janine Sutto, French Canadian actress 1923 - Mother Angelica, American nun and broadcaster 1923 - Tito Puente, American musician (d. 2000) 1924 - Leslie Phillips, English actor 1925 - Ernie Stautner, German-born American football player (d. 2006) 1927 - Phil Hill, American race car driver and one-time F1 world champion 1927 - Karl Alexander Müller, Swiss physicist, Nobel Prize laureate 1928 - Johnny Gavin, Irish footballer (d. 2007) 1928 - Gerald S. Hawkins, English astronomer (d. 2003) 1936 - Pat Roberts, American politician 1937 - George Takei, American actor 1939 - Peter S. Beagle, American author 1939 - Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Prime Minister of Norway 1939 - Johnny Tillotson, American singer 1941 - Ryan O'Neal, American actor 1943 - John Eliot Gardiner, English conductor 1943 - Edie Sedgwick, American actress (d. 1971) 1945 - Michael Brandon, American actor 1945 - Steve Spurrier, American football player and coach 1946 - Julien Poulin, French Canadian actor 1946 - Gordon Smiley, American racecar driver (d. 1982) 1946 - Mel Winkler, American voice actor 1947 - Björn Skifs, Swedish singer (Blue Swede) 1947 - Andrew Tobias, American journalist and author 1947 - David Leland, British actor, director and screenwriter 1948 - Craig Frost, American musician (Grand Funk & Bob Seger) 1948 - Adolf Lu Hitler Marak, Indian politician 1948 - Gregory Itzin, American actor 1948 - Rémy Trudel, French Canadian politician 1949 - Massimo D'Alema, Prime Minister of Italy 1949 - Veronica Cartwright, American actress 1949 - Toller Cranston, Canadian figure skater and artist 1949 - Jessica Lange, American actress 1950 - Steve Erickson, American novelist 1950 - Aleksandr Lebed, Russian general and politician (d. 2002) 1950 - Chandra Babu Naidu, Indian politician 1951 - Luther Vandross, American singer (d. 2005) 1952 - Božidar Maljković, Serbian basketball coach 1953 - Sebastian Faulks, British novelist 1953 - Michael Q. Schmidt, American actor and model 1954 - Gilles Lupien, French Canadian ice hockey player 1956 - Beatrice Ask, Swedish politician 1957 - Geraint Wyn Davies, Welsh-Canadian actor 1958 - Viacheslav Fetisov, Russian ice hockey player 1961 - Don Mattingly, American baseball player 1961 - Konstantin Lavronenko, Russian actor 1963 - Mauricio Gugelmin, Brazilian racing driver 1963 - Aubrey de Grey, British biomedical gerontologist 1964 - Crispin Glover, American actor 1964 - Andy Serkis, English actor 1964 - Rosalynn Sumners, American figure skater 1965 - Ralph Cirella, stylist and friend of Howard Stern 1965 - Kostas Hatzidakis, Greek politician 1965 - Adrian Fernández, Mexican racing driver 1966 - David Chalmers, Australian philosopher 1967 - Raymond van Barneveld, Dutch darts player 1967 - Mike Portnoy, American drummer (Dream Theater) 1967 - Lara Jill Miller, American actress 1968 - J. D. Roth, American game show host and television personality 1969 - Chris Jarvis, children's TV personality 1970 - Shemar Moore, American actor 1970 - Adriano Moraes, Brazilian rodeo performer 1971 - Carla Geurts, Dutch swimmer 1971 - Allan Houston, basketball player 1971 - Tina Cousins, English singer 1972 - Carmen Electra, American actress 1972 - Le Huynh Đuc, Vietnamese footballer 1972 - Stephen Marley, Jamaican musician 1973 - Geoff Lloyd, British radio presenter 1976 - Joey Lawrence, American actor 1976 - Shay Given, Irish footballer 1977 - Johnny "The Bull" Stamboli, professional wrestler 1978 - Mirei Kuroda, Japanese gravure idol 1980 - Jasmin Wagner, German singer 1981 - Matus Valent, male fitness model 1983 - Terrence J, American television host 1983 - Miranda Kerr, Australian supermodel 1984 - Tyson Griffin, American mixed martial artist 1986 - Cameron Duncan, New Zealand director (d. 2003) 1987 - John Patrick Amedori, American actor Deaths 1977 - Sepp Herberger, German football coach (b. 1897) 1982 - Archibald MacLeish, American poet and Librarian of Congress (b. 1892) 1984 - Hristo Prodanov, Bulgarian mountaineer (b. 1943) 1986 - Sibte Hassan, Pakistani activist, journalist and writer (b. 1916) 1989 - Doru Davidovici, Romanian writer and fighter pilot (b. 1945) 1991 - Steve Marriott, British singer and songwriter (Humble Pie) (b. 1947) 1991 - Don Siegel, American film director (b. 1912) 1993 - Cantinflas, Mexican comedian and actor (b. 1911) 1994 - Jean Carmet, French actor (b. 1920) 1996 - Christopher Robin Milne, son of A.A. Milne (b. 1920) 1999 - Victims of the Columbine High School massacre 1999 - Rick Rude, American professional wrestler (b. 1958) 1999 - Señor Wences, Spanish ventriloquist and comedian (b. 1896) 2001 - Giuseppe Sinopoli, Italian conductor and composer (b. 1946) 2002 - Alan Dale, American singer (b. 1925) 2003 - Ruth Hale, American playwright and actress (b. 1908) 2003 - Daijiro Kato, Japanese motorcycle racer (b. 1976) 2003 - Bernard Katz, German-born biophysicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1911) 2005 - Fumio Niwa, Japanese novelist (b. 1904) 2005 - Zygfryd Blaut, Polish football player (b. 1943) 2006 - Anna Svidersky (b. 1988) 2007 - Andrew Hill, American jazz composer and pianist (b. 1931) 2007 - Michael Fu Tieshan, Chinese bishop (b. 1931).